英亚| 2020托福寫作熱門主題趨勢預測

文章来源:立博体育app官网时间:2020-01-05 点击:

2.物種特征這類題以現象題居多,分析物種某一特征的產生的原因或者功能等。這類話題在今年的生物類話題中占最大比重9/24。比如4月14日考題,討論鹿角的三個功能以及9月7日討論劍齒虎是不是群居動物。接下來選取一道經典例題為大家做分析:PassageManybirdsengageinanting,abehaviorinwhichabirdapproachesacolonyofants(smallinsects),picksupantswithitsbeak,andrubstheantsonitsfeathers.Sinceantsinstinctivelydefendthemselvesbysprayingformicacid,thebirdendsupwithformicacidonitsfeathersandskin.Thereareseveraltheoriesaboutthepossiblebenefitthatbirdsgetfromanting.

英亚国际Antingbehaviortypicallytakesplaceduringthesummer.Thisfactleadssomescientiststobelievethatthefunctionofantingistorelieveskinirritationthatbirdsfeel,especiallyduringsummermonths.Insummer,birdsloseoldfeathersandgrownewones.Theformicacid,whichthebirdsapplytotheirfeathersandskinthroughanting,mayactasakindofskinlotion,helpingtosoothetheskinirritationcausedbyfeatherlossandreplacement.

ProtectionagainstParasitesAnothertheoryisthattheformicacidhelpsthebirdsprotectthemselvesfromexternalparasites,suchasmitesandticks,thatcaninfesttheirfeathersorskin.Inantingsothetheorygoesabirdisessentiallyusingtheformicacidthatitspreadsoveritsfeathersandskinasachemicaldefenseagainstparasites.

Athirdtheoryisreleaseofformicacidmakesitpossibleforthebirdstofeedontheants.Formicacidtastesbitter;ifthebirdsprovokeantsintoreleasingtheformicacid,thebittertasteisremovedfromtheants’bodiesandthebirdscanfeedontheantswithouttastingthebitterness.So,accordingtothistheory,antingisjustawayforbirdstomakesuretheantstastegood.

這篇屬于典型的“物種特征”類型的生物類話題,閱讀開頭段提出全文立場,討論anting行為對鳥類帶來的好處,并且給出三個理由,每個主體段前都出現小標題來方便大家理解。三個理由分別從“換毛期消炎”“去除寄生蟲”以及“讓食物更好吃”層面來講,聽力也是同樣抓住這三個層面進行反駁。LectureIt’sstillprettyunclearhowantingbehaviorbenefitsbirds.Noneofthetheoriesproposedinthereadingisreallyconvincing.Themainargumentinfavorofthefirsttheoryisthetiming.Birdsengageinantinginthesummer,andtheychangetheirfeathersinsummeraswell.Andsoitseemsthatoneisrelatedtotheother,butmaybethere’sacompletelydifferentreasonwhybirdsengageinantingduringthesummer.Yousee,antsaremoreactiveduringthesummerandit’smucheasierforbirdstofindthemthanduringotherseasons.Maybethesimplereasonwhyweseebirds’antingduringthesummeristhatbirdsaresimplyabletofindmanymoreantsduringthesummerthanatanyothertime.Thefactthatbirdsalsohappentochangetheirfeathersduringthesummercouldbejustacoincidence.

Second,thetheorythatformicacidthat’sreleasedduringantingprotectsbirdsfromharmfulparasites.Well,ifthiswerethecase,wewouldexpectbirdsthatengageinantingtohavefewerparasites,likemites,orticksthanbirdsthatdon’tengageinanting,butresearchshowsthatthisisnotthecase.Birdsthatengageinantingdonotseemtohavesignificantlyfewerparasites.Third,itseemsdoubtfulthatbyrubbingantsforeatingthemlater.Yousee,thisbehaviorofrubbingstuffontheirfeathersisquiteinstinctive,andbirdsengageinitevenifthethingsthey’rerubbingarecompletelyunsuitableforeating.Forexample,birdshavebeenobservedtopickupthingslikepiecesofcigarettesor,piecesofsoapandrubthemontheirfeathers,andtheycertainlydidn’teatanyofthatstufflater,soitseemsthatthisbehaviorofrubbingthingslikeantsonfeathersisnotrelatedtoeating.

第二主體段:虛擬語氣反駁這一段中采用虛擬語氣的反駁邏輯,聽力先假設鳥類通過anting可以達到去除寄生蟲的目的,推理出鳥類身上將會有明顯的寄生蟲數量減少,然而實施情況與推理結果相反,所以anting行為并不能去除寄生蟲。虛擬語氣反駁的邏輯就是先假定閱讀正確,推理結果,并與事實\研究結果進行對照發現不符。所以大家如果在聽力中發現假設閱讀正確了,就一定是虛擬語氣的方式進行反駁。同樣的,在寫作中也需要使用虛擬語氣來完成段落。

第三主體段:事實反駁聽力在這一段通過對鳥類anting的行為分析得知,鳥類經常摩擦的并不一定是螞蟻,也有煙頭和肥皂角等明顯不是食物的東西,而且使用過后也不會食用。事實反駁是反駁邏輯中最常出現的一種。【教育類】教育類的考題目前數量比較少,但是和獨立寫作的話題方式比較接近,如4月13日閱讀提出高校要求學生參加社區volunteer才能畢業,聽力提出了三個反對原因。5月19日討論學校是否開設樂器演奏相關課程,總體來說都還是在“校園教育”范疇,作為一種嘗試,未來可能還會拓展到其他方面。

立博体育app官网